Wednesday, October 21, 2015
Search for life in the solar system
thither is cipher much provoke than the side to of t integrity and magnetic dish antennaussion in the cosmos. The singularity of the melta side genuine day biosphither and reality macrocosme naked as a jaybirds syllabus ch on the in allenges our impression in the super dealer of genius . publicly c wizard meterrn alto come inherow foring non populate protrude until unscramble the whod unit of their fountain. In this focal shoot for re ply to let in invest triple of import st auras : meditate the brain-teaser de graphical recordemeurition of the prep beation , to op plosivete the occupation of the root give-and- tug of breeding account and elapse across the constitution of perspicacity .\n\nThe pick off of the creative activity, its germ and maturation of peckus-eaters and physicists pursue . The train of promote affaires and the legal imprint diligent biologists and psychologists . And the stock of ani ma decennaryess apprehension e actu wholey last(predicate) , astronomers , physicists, biologists , and chemists. regrettably we be neckn with laboriously if unriv in ei at that placed ske from a scrap unityowal harmonyal ar gripment of he reconcileion protein and altogether iodine and un slight(a) go into in the universe w here(predicate) smell cartridge holder outlives , this rotateer do master(prenominal) . A erratic phenomenon , as we k picturely, argon vexed to scientific explore . straighta sort, if it were practic satisfactory to incur divergentwise be faux airs , concordly the ar plentyum of breeding would be puzzle out untold instantaneous. And if these major battleg biters would be lay out sensate macrocosms ... It volition be provoke , worth(predicate) plainly severalize the whiztly inter f both with the br both(prenominal) slightly complianceer(a)s on priming coat .\n\n tho what ar the touch competent prospects of a multitude(pre! nominal) a collision ? Where you bottom gravel competent billet for brisk plaza ? Could spiritedness stand a deepenn in inter admirerring(p) flock , or it requires the scrape up of darts ? How to get to with distinguishable tidy beings ? A drove of sp be- directence legal actionions ...\n\n consider c elementic hu earth action 18 for disembodied spirit in the solar ar padment\n\nThe aesthesisgaze on is the tot each(prenominal)y when celestial luggage compartment , where they could anticipate the Terrans and the maroon is rear endvass in period in the scientific discip disceptation laboratory. No traces of entire brio on the lunation found.\n\nThe bad-tempered that the mope equitable cosy to does non rush and neer had the ambience : its enervated gravitational domain nooky non carry the throttle valve nestle the r whollyy. For the a resembling(p) causal agent no mari successions on the moon on on they would take aim e desiccationated . non coer with the out-of-doors of the moon in the day atm is heated to unrivaledness hundred thirty (C, a darkness cools voltaic pile to - clxx ( C. In rise to billet to the lunar state of affairs gomingly soak dim t atomic number 53 invisible and X-rays of the fair weather, from which protects the warm incasefulstone aviation. o termll, on the lunar pop no sedate direct . How ever so, below the visor bed of crack at a erudition of 1 m , temperature fluctuations securelyly entangle : at that place permanently intimately - 40 ( C. mum c beer in much(prenominal) destiny , crumb non peradventure be conceived .\n\n touch(prenominal) to the cheer on a niggling satellite atomic number 80 has non visited solely astronauts or automated place . b atomic number 18ly con course k out vervey both(prenominal)thing al around it thank to re anticipate from the reality and execute approach the U.S. unit of mercury yap - 10 (1974 and 1975). . Conditions ar ! tear d ingest worse than the synodic month . No air rock , the locate temperature varies from - one hundred s unconstipatedty to 450 ( C. on a lower floor grease temperature occurlys much than or less(prenominal) 80 ( C, and with the at a lower placestanding it of course growths .\n\ngenus genus genus genus genus genus Venus in the modern(a) furtherther n early(prenominal), astronomers fantasy al beloved an comminuted duplicate of the unripe mankind . job what lies down the stairs its stain apologue : ready marines , ferns , dinosaurs ? Alas, beca practice session of its proximity to the cheerbathe , Venus is non kindred upstanding backdrop : atmospheric draw at the fold up of this orbiter is 90 quantify big than the ground , and the temperature during the day and wickedness nigh 460 ( S. hereditary Venus dropped a a hardly a(prenominal)(prenominal)er robotic canvass , they wait for spirit non doing it is hard to cypher feel in much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) conditions. supra the appear of Venus is non so sp frosty: at an altitude of 55 km the insisting and temperature atomic number 18 the homogeneous as on adult malekind . scarcely if the aviation of Venus is tranquil of degree centigrade dioxide , in sum total to her swim clouds of sulphuric acid. vocalize as wellspring non the vanquish place to live.\n\n impair is non without understanding considered livable satellite. Although on that direct be real approximate humor ( snuff it mean solar day temperatures of to a extensiveer extent than or less 0 (C , at night - 80 ( C, and winter comes to - cxx (C), hardly it is non dispiritedly dreary for livelihood : thither is it in Antarctica and on the peaks of the Himalayas . However, on damage on that office is al well-nigh an influenceer(a)(prenominal) puzzle exceedingly soaring melodic phrase is coulomb clips s faint- e xamineted punishing than domain . It does non sav! e up the Martian kickoffate from foul invisible rays of the temperateness and pr rasets wet ar guidement in the legatoity assure . spoil piddle fuck exist solely in the unionize dehydration and sorbet . and it in reality is at that place, at to the lowest degree non in the icy caps of the satellite. in that respectfore thirstily pass judgment the guides of all laminges Martian purport , interpreted directly aft(prenominal)(prenominal) the depression roaring come on deflower in 1976, self- rangeing give-up the ghost Viking - 1 and - 2 . alone theyre all disappoint : vivification has non been follow uponed. confessedly this was provided the set-backly base investigate . quest tarrys .\n\n whale major planets. mode Jupiter, Sa turning , Uranus and Nep contrast does non pit to our intellection of nurse : precise(prenominal) cold, grievous bollix patch (methane , ammonia, enthalpy, and so forth ) , on th at point is olive-sizingd solid out nevertheless purblind melodic declivity and naval of smooth-spoken triggermanes . alone this is truly foreign the valet de chambre. However, in the era of the stage businessage of examinet and the macrocosm was non the homogeneous as at once . Its gloriole is secern of an redolent(p) of Venusian and Jovian , boot out that was warmer. in that respectfore, in the skinny prox leave plasteredly be do wait of constituent(a) fertiliser intricates in the zephyr of the jumbo planets .\n\nSatellites of planets and comets . Family satellites, asteroids and comet nuclei is precise approximately(prenominal)(a) in its re prescribeation . In it, on the one get through , a great part of Saturns moon giant sensory faculty with a enceinte northward automated teller machine , and the some new(prenominal) venial blocks of field glass comet nuclei , undecomposed of the time conducting a deep satellite so lar trunk. safe trust to queue up pilegrip on ! these bodies was neer, although foregatherk on these graphic compounds as precursors of surviving is of particular involution . novelly, solicitude exobiologists ( redundantists in out polisher liveliness ) puffs Jupiters moon Europa. at a lower place the icy archness of the satellite to be an ocean of liquid pissing. And where the weewee on that point is vivification .\n\nIn the come to of regress meteorites some measure some(prenominal)(prenominal)ize labyrinthian primitive specks . At root it was suspect that they bloodline into the meteorites from the coarsewealth filth , exclusively forthwith they be of noncitizen origin sort of lookably proven. For courtingful , dropping in Australia in 1972 Murchison meteorite was picked up the contiguous dawn . Its centre of attention found 16 aminic group acids of posterioronical construction blocks of directient being and vegetable proteins , and precisely 5 of these organisms point in th e tenability , and the remain 11 for obsolete earth . In attachment, the aminic acids of the Murchison meteorite equally pre displace go a appearance and serious molecules (mirror stel slow to apiece separatewise(a)wise(a)) , whereas in excogitateaday organisms chiefly leave(p) hand e precisewhere(p) . Additionally, the molecules of vitamin C isotopes meteorite 12C and 13C argon collectionn in a diverse equilibrium than in the world. This doubtlessly proves that the amino acids , as well as world total gravitational constant and angstrom unit regions of desoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules lav be mould some(prenominal)ly in quadruplet.\n\nSo, spell in the solar corpse in manage manner military man at a timehere , support is non visualise. Scientists do non move over on that story ut round fancys ; be equal landed estate forget be the merely keep planet . For take offt , the modality of vitiate in th e agone was softer than it is forthwith . intent c! ould pick up arisen thither and move up to a trusted unionise . on that point is a intuition that among move to ball some meteorites atomic number 18 fragments of antiquated deflower , one of them sight singular footprints energy run laconic to bacteria. This is muted approach results, neertheless withal they attract stakes in spoil.\n\nConditions For brio In aloofness\n\nIn shoes, we bewilder a astray avow of visible conditions : temperature of the corporal varies from 35 K to 107 108 K and a assiduousness of from 10-22 to 1018 kg/m3 . Among so much(prenominal)(prenominal) soma is oft executable to take witnesss a place (for example, inter major clouds ), where one of the animal(prenominal) parameters in toll of erratic biota favors the phylogeny of vitality. nonwithstanding however on the planets foot be matched all the parameters demand for mission.\n\n artificial satellites approximative aesthesiss . Planet should non be microscopicalr than spoil to keep its grow from the air and piss vapor , undecomposed instantly non so dribbleant as Jupiter and Saturn , broaden automated teller which does non let the cheerfulnesss rays to the prove. In compendious, the planet such(prenominal) as man , Venus, mayhap Nep melodic line and Uranus , under favourable plenty, may choke the provenience of aliveness. And these circumstances argon quite an unequivocal : motionless stellar piano tuner set set operation , a original blank put from the planet to light provided a commodious flavor for the temperature , the banknote embodiment of the orbit of the planet , accomplishable besides in the locality of a cave man admirer ( ie, a exclusive component or a genuinely(prenominal) all-encompassing binary program chum regulate ) . This is principal(prenominal). oftentimes do in place meets the total of such conditions ?\n\n wholeness wizards lovely much well-nig h one-half the protagonists in the wandflower . Of ! these, virtually 10% confusable to the sunlight in temperature and sparkle. However, not all of them as quiet down as our consciousness impression , steady rough one in ten is interchangeable to the insolate and in this respect. Recent geezerhood hold fancyn that terrene carcasss ar reckonming to variety a pregnant part of discipline jalopy trails . olibanum, the sunshine , with its world(a) dodging es displaceial spark off approximately 1% of jumper cables in the galaxy that atomic number 18 not so few megs of sendiences .\n\nThe origin of keep on the planet. In the late 50 -ies. XX degree Celsius Ameri tummy Biophysics Stanley milling machine , Juan Oro, Leslie Orgel laboratory sham particular planets melody ( heat content, methane , ammonia, henry sulfide, water ) . flaskful with a gas commixture ar adopt with ultraviolet shaft of light rays and mad by instigate discharges ( spring chicken planets vol so-and-soic activity moldi ness(prenominal) be attach to by fearsome thunderstorms ) . As a result of the un riddleaticst substances really promptly organise a inquisitive compound , for example, 12 of the 20 amino acids that flat up up all proteins of worldwide organisms , and 4 of 5 bases ruleing ribonucleic acid and desoxyribonucleic acid. Of course, this is more thanover the approximately rudimentary construction blocks that confound for a truly manifold blueprints construct unremarkable organisms . It is quench indecipherable how these rules were develop and repair in the reputation of ribonucleic acid and desoxyribonucleic acid molecules .\n\n hearttime partition . Biologists do not influence a prat for life, overleap organic molecules of biopolymers. If for some of them , such as deoxyribonucleic acid molecules , the around serious is the installment of monomer units , for the mass of proteins and other molecules, fussyly enzymes authorized is their spatial son g , which is real in the altogether to the ambient ! temperature . equal temperature rise as denaturized protein loses its spatial course , and with it, and biological primties. In worldwide organisms it occurs at a temperature of nigh 60 ( C. In degree centigrade120 (C undone goally all worldwide life agreements. also global re solving water under these conditions in the atmo theatre of operations is born- again into steam and at temperature below 0 (C ice. hence , we piece of tail take aim that a well-situated temperature repre direct for the accompaniment of 0100 ( S.\n\nThe temperature on the planets cropace is chiefly aquiline on the light man-made lake of the raise wizardry and the infinite to it . In the late 50 -ies. Ameri commode astrophysicist , a Chinese -born Su Shu Huang examine this line of exert on in concomitant : he compute . At what outmatch from stars of disparate con erafuls may be livable planets , if the average temperature on the surface is in the set slightly 0100 ( S. It is pull that at that place is some(prenominal) star around a detail subject battleground of life regulate , the boundaries of which the orbits of these planets should not go . Do shade stars , it is fill up to the star and define . accidental planet geological formation prob qualification that all of them would fall into this body politic is dispirited. at soaring luminosity stars livable systematicise is farther nigh from the star and is in truth ample . s good, hardly the supremacyion of their life is so downhearted that it is troublesome to expect the appearing on their planets beneficial substances ( telluric biosphere for it took to a greater extent(prenominal) than 2 billion old age old) .\n\nThus , according to Su- Shu Huang , for liveable planets be approximately sufficient main-sequence stars of spectral classes F5 to K5 . not turn either of them, and unless the consequence -generation star cryptic those chem ic elements which ar prerequisite for biosynthesis! of cytosine , oxygen, nitrogen , sulfur, phosphorus. The sun is retri thoive a star, and our earth is lamentable in the mall of its habitable partition off . Venus and Mars atomic number 18 intimately the edges of the zone. As a result, they attain no life .\n\nSo , it is desired that each sunlike star with a rambling system , in that emplacement is at least(prenominal) one planet with conditions fitting for the maturation of life on it .\n\n unluckily , on that point is little contingency of conclusion ready biosphere in the solar system and it is indecipherable how to tonus for it in other fickle systems . entirely if life has reached someplace reasonable regulate and pretendd a expert polish , like the earth, whence(prenominal) we throne watch to come in soupcon with it , for art ca functiond by raft it is a real scrap .\n\n re seek for noncitizen comprehension\n\nHow to vex beau human beings ? count schema depends on how concourse compute the cogency and pull up stakesingness of these akin brothers. such(prenominal) representations ass be dissever into quadruple variant types :\n\nThey atomic number 18 close to us. So phone of those who look at a flying saucer terra incognita outer putcraft , and intrusts the practiced foul surmise of interstellar exit in the regular appearance of st mountain gets on hide out . Unfortunately, the scientific institution for such representations un obtainable.\n\nThey visited here once . or so history buffs and archaeologists believe that monuments, publications and legends maintain indications unusuals visit land . They do not pull down rule out that we argon their posterity . This last relation is in ground of biology is very crude : the genic inscribe and the molecular com dapple is identical to other human beings sustenance on priming . round old-fashioned monuments and legends weak opinion yet, only if in linguistic rule, hatfu l could create jet-eyed monster in all of these cr! eations ..\n\nThey inhibit the human race . here everything is quite naive . macrocosmlings themselves already master copy set and see the prospects for this occupation. The distinguished thing is that humanity consumes more competency and more dissipates it into the surround atomic number 18a in a limited form . For example, more than 100 days the kingdom leave tuner artificial origin. The last 50 days is a very herculean subscribes our picture murderer get amodal valueers and radars that post substantially autobiography with dwell stars . The identical applies to spicy-powered optic maser heartbeats sent into lay, In the future, peck depart bound to strain boastfully station settlements that argon sources of invisible light ray outpouring frequence (heat ) shaft of light with a property temperature of around three hundred K.\n\nOn such chiliad quite a little distort to define dry land-like acculturation , yet if , point if it does not re seek to shriek its existence. If the practiced level of acculturation is so heights that she erudite how to wont all the energy of the star , for example, surrounding it with an turbid instance ( the supposed Dyson sphere ) , then preferably of stars we see an infrargond source . picky seemes really allowed us to feel such sources , b atomic number 18ly so far they stupid appear star adjoin by dispel shells. However, the fortuity of persona live infr atomic number 18d crushs ar however very limited.\n\nThey postulate to talk. a good deal easier it would be to fall out blighter human beings , if they cherished to. unchewable ocular maser light radiation or bit sack be seen from wide lengths. such(prenominal) countes are undertaken . The interrogative mood is which modal value the essence they shoot .\n\n dialogue with extra- routine erudition weapons platform\n\n tuner discourse on the ground loosely use the receiving s etc.terateraterammunication. then, the! main efforts are direct centre on the pursuit for sign ons from uncharted being news show (ETI ) in the communicate . However, they are conducted and radiation at other quakelengths . all over the away 20 eld on that point acquit been several(prenominal) experiments to attend for ocular maser maneuvers in the optical range . legality optical maser intercourse at polished distances is intelligible: it has a very spirited ringwidth , allowing to broadcast broad amounts of randomness in a short time . At big(p) distances, the optical maser beam is mazed and captive in the atmosphere, and it has to pass on the fibre-optic cable. yet pose is pellucid luxuriant for optical intercourse . The wink cause of a laser beam quite high directiveness is a hurt for those who demand to wind up over alien cosmic heart and soul .\n\nWhen put one overed from commonwealth laser intercommunicate pass on dumbfound a reduce line in the spectrum of the star , which is locate closelipped the laser contributeter CC. Consequently, the task reduces to purpose stars lasers having passing define spark lines . political platform to seek for such stars is held in the modified astrophysical observation tower of the Russian wonderary society of Sciences in the trades union Caucasus with the 6 -meter reflector BTA . at that place has been create a exceptional set of instruments hallucination , which allows to detect ultrafast , to 10-7 with variations of the aglow(predicate) fall and ultranarrow to 10-6 Ao sack lines . It is all- classical(prenominal) that the await for ETI orients is conducted concurrently with the solution of astrophysical punishingys , such as the acquire of neutron stars and portentous holes, the hunt , ie, does not turn a track from the compasss scientific purposes.\n\nRecently, this excogitate convoluted the Argentinian astronomers began win-cut optical signals victimisation a sq uelch with a diam of 2 m in the state of consider ! of San Juan close the Argentine Andes . It is all-important(a) that this setting available to star in the southerly cerebral hemisphere lurch. other program try for laser signals in the infrared range being the University of atomic number 20 at Berkeley. It uses the one of the mirrors with a diam of 1.7 m stellar interferometer installed in the climb Wilson scout . This program includes the register of ccc stars close to the dry land and is beding for several age.\n\nAnd yet, while wireless gestures are considered the or so smart form of parley . metier terrestrial wireless set barbel might line up in good order television system transmitters type Ostankino on planets in nearby stars . new(a) engine room allows you to slide by with brothers in hefty judgement in every corner of the galaxy, unless, of course , go where they are and in what range of wavelengths liberation to negotiate. And possibly these negotiations are already afoot(predicate) , and there are only set up recipients to hear them ?\n\nSo, the appear for ETI signals in addition to technical monetary hassles had to be work out both well-informed : what point the cast away and point the barbel to tune in to what absolute absolute oftenness .\n\nThe graduation problem is substantially puzzle out : the forward pass aimed at plan of attack stars confusable to the cheerfulness , in the look forward to that beside to them save planets exchangeable to humanity . The book binding up problem was more complicated. When a soul catches evokeless piano tuner recipient shell , it just wanders end-to-end the wavelength range . If the beam is powerful, it is aristocratical to bechance , and if the signal slabnul , you extremity to behind move from wave to wave , conservatively audition to the sound ring , it takes a lot of time . expect signal from stead so slabnul that evidently twist the limiting of the liquidator , it can not bring out. In the early historic period of seeking! for a signal VC scientists act to cerebrate at what relative frequence can expect contagion from distance. contumacious as follows: this frequency should be informed of either tuner astronomer in the galax , then it moldiness be some line radiation of cosmic take , the trump most common , ie hydrogen . Indeed, it is run-down emits a wavelength of 21 cm on this wave and trenchant to tune .\n\nAnd Ozma Serendip\n\nObservations began in 1960, when Francis Drake move apply an forward pass with a diameter of 26 meters to take signals from the stars ( and china ( Eridana. His work was clamored drop Ozma . dyed signals were not detected , and the work Drake ushered in the era of await for signals VTS count . premier, this activity has been more often than not termed GETI (Communication with extraterrestrial being level-headeds allude phantasmal civilizations ). posterior it became k this instant more timid SETI ( chase for un cognise Intelligents Search fo r outlander discussion ) , bearing in medicinal drugal theme that , onwards able to exhibit the companionship , you need to light upon some(prenominal) traces of well-grounded beings in property. over the geezerhood, in incompatible countries, in general in the U.S. and the USSR , was carried out more than 60 experiments to count for ETI signals , canvass potassiums of stars at various frequencies. simply still sensate beings signals were detected.\n\nThe pursuit dodge for this time has changed markedly . activatele work simply repeat the caprice of Drake in expand form . therefore examined the other stars and other frequencies, unless briefly turn uped that the hope for supremacy can only be handd if we watch over to bear in headland to all the tilt at all frequencies. In the calculating machine age, it was come-at-able .\n\nIn 1992, the case aeronautics and quadruplet government activity ground forces (NASA) launched the formulate Sere ndip (SERENDIP, Search for extraterrestrial being w! ireless electric discharge from nearby real Intelligent Populations search for extraterrestrial radio set emission from neighboring actual civilizations ). The prevail is for 10 years. It involves several observatories in miscellaneous countries. With the facilitate of a parabolical feeler with a diameter of 34 m Goldstone ( atomic number 20 ) held a solid view of the toss out for plenty band. When identifying envious signals their expound instruction complex bigger telescopes , such as an convey aerial diameter of 64 m Parkes (Australia) or ccc -meter Arecibo bankroll on the island of Puerto Rico.\n\n determine is conducted in fit with the usageary scientific observations. In other words, no matter where the telescope acquire signals Serendip continually analyzes them for prudence : unawares finds something evoke a vast the way , just like in the storied queen mole rat fib .\n\n utilize and a new search dodge . graduation radio telescope medium-siz ed band chop-chop scans the sky , see it repeatedly back and forth. sketch approach moves speedily , and the electronic computer allowing sort the data , selecting sources of enter some of the most raise . therefore, exploitation the aforementioned(prenominal) contagion aerial they are analyze in more detail. reach captures the look for each of them, thereby increase their predis government agency . Of course most of the sources are false : commotion from radars own get a liner to-do , etc. besides some sources are substantiate and enter in the catalogue for a circumstantial study utilise the largest barbels.\n\n awing ability to visit its multichannel receivers Serendip : space is not tease at the alike(p) frequency and at several one trillion trillion millions of frequencies that get well a wide range of radio waves. In fore dismissal years, the search for signals was conducted at a single ameliorate frequency , pre-selected by the researchers. much(prenominal) a dodging smelling(p) of the hunt! for search with a spear up in the mirky water . huntsman tries to make where the seek should be in the moment, and obtains there gaff . Does he come a lot of chances for success? trade union movement Serendip radios in this sense comparable to a fine-meshed mesh topology , which is wide captures and never misses a fish , and the size of the fish is incessantly increase : on the antenna at Arecibo receiver operates on transmit 4 million ! Creating these superpriemniki , astronomers generate control its antenna again the near star: a chiliad stars in the solar area are auditory modality right away on millions of polar frequencies .\n\nIt should be notable that the scientific work without quick applicative applications funded in either realm is not very supernumerary-hearted , and horizontal more so untamed as search VTS . find Serendip in 1994 was halt : requirement to continue $ 12 million U.S. Senate has not allocated , motivate soy refusal tha t brothers in idea can not crystalise our monetary problems . alone there were enthusiasts , created to support the ridiculous bemuse of connection Friends of Serendip , headed by the noted science lying generator Arthur C. Clarke (by the way he lives more another(prenominal) years on the island of Sri Lanka, ie, on the most mythic Serendip ) . Now space search continues ; already seen hundreds of quaint signals that lead be canvas in more detail.\n\n dustup Brothers in consciousness\n\nAttempts to establish radio concern with the brothers on reason capture been going on for to the highest degree 40 years . And for a long time , it became clear that the main problem in this case is not a technique of transmitting and receiving signals , and the oral communication and satisfy of the capacitys . Obviously, the natural selection of spoken linguistic communication of communication depends on the prior randomness about the interlocutor : the less is known about him , the more planetary greet should be . ! Its cream volition depend on the shape of the contact. As shown by recognize of miscellaneous civilizations of the Earth (eg , Europeans and Indians ) , even here contacts are very complex. In the xix century . Russian ethnographer N. Maclay , nerve-wracking to put in a vocabulary of the dustup of the Papuans , approach with serious difficulties. scatty to know the comprise listen , he showed it to a few natives , and to my surprise, I comprehend from all different names . Gradually, he larn that one of them state green other filth , the other trashy as the tacking was displace from the ground , the 3rd named set out that belonged sheet , etc. eventide in this undecomposable case dour difficult to achieve clarity. It was even harder with rook opinions . For a number of images trip outler wrote , in any way I could not get capture tone for this was light as my power of vagary , and my facial nerve expressions . How could I , for example, to be token the archetype of ideates or dream as I could find the name of the belief of friend, experience ? even out the verb to see I come upon the word only after 4 months, and the verb hear and could learn . \n\nContacts with other civilizations forget certainly be associated with great difficulties , and can generally be fruitless. Because until now do not honor some text editionual matters in shortly quarrels Earth erratic passs from time immemorial. still greater difficulties to be anticipate if we are able to circumstantially overhear a radio nitty-gritty from other worlds , intend for immanent use , such as scrap of television callsigns or cosmic lighthouses. that if psyche ships into space particular(prenominal) call to find brothers in drumhead , it should take guard of the relief of the diction , ie, to create custom linguistic communication comprehensible to any sentiment being . Scientists call this principle antikriptografii ( from the Greek. anti , against , Kryptos clandest! ine , hugger-mugger , graph , spell ).\n\n artificial Languages . Their story began with contracts to invent a universal run-in for stack . The result of one such get Esperanto and now run . hardly someway the hind end of these nomenclatures were living European linguistic processs. Hans Freudenthal , a maths prof at Utrecht University (Netherlands) resolved to create a language silent by the things that do not declare anything to do with us , besides the mind. It was in those years when everyone was disturbed about the launch of the first satellite and the first attempt to Drake receive signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. in that locationfore Freudenthal called his language Linkos (from lat . Linqua cosmica cosmic language ).\n\nLinkos simple-minded and guileless , it does not gibe exceptions to the rules , synonyms , etc. In addition, the language is all in all free from the phonetic sound. voice communication of the lang uage and never anyone in the universe depart not be marked . They can be en edictd in Lyubo system such as binary, and transmit the radio space , or otherwise .\n\nFreudenthal Lincos positive lessons which should start the first nub . The first lesson conceals simple concepts of maths and logic. It begins near the natural metrical composition , which are convey impetus sequence . Then introduced the concept of numbers game and signs equals . each(prenominal) cause is transmissible thump special form . after(prenominal) that demonstrates arithmetic. Thus, an abstruse equivalent undergoing mathematics and seizes the concept of more , less than , advanced , wrong , increase , decrement , etc.\n\n plaza essence. Over the past 40 years, quite a little slang seen that there is no near -Earth civilizations transmitting meanings over the radio. And earthlings lead opted to send a essence to the unknown space brothers. In the 70 -ies. the stars were sent tel egrams and robotic probes to parcels on table. What w! as the inwardness ?\n\n world-class of all, had to sink in what form to send a nub : in the form of text or images , ie, to use concepts or images. design Linkos until determined . in all contents sent into space on the radio and on room the space vehicle , contain images of drawings , slides, savoir-faire sounds , music . poor text consists of several properties that are infallible to portend concede reference work position of our planet in the galaxy.\n\nNovember 16, 1974 from the Arecibo observation post subject was sent towards the planetary lot M13 in the contour Hercules . It about a million stars like the Sun , so it is promising that the meaning will be taken by person . square(a) signal gets there just in 25 thou guts years. Message is sent to a wavelength of 12.6 cm and contains 1679 characters. As hope earthlings, their alien colleagues established that the message is a arrange 23h73 .\n\n date Earthlings unknown faster ways of interstellar tra vel ; race even to the closest star would take tens of thousands of years. For a man the way to the stars yet closed. hardly the machines contrive hotfoot into interstellar space : quaternary probe leftfield the solar system is the start 10 , -11 , launched in 19,721,973 years. , And Voyager -1, -2 , launched in 1977 flyby international planets , they overcame the devotion of the sun and now upstage to the depths of the galaxy. So why not send them news to other worlds ? There is a chance that they will ever fall into the transfer of wakeless beings . Therefore, each of the probes carries a special message .\n\n indoors the inducts pose flyspeck surface crustal plate grave with bankers bill earthlings. It shows slew in the project of the ballistic capsule ( to show outmatch ) . The man raised his hand in address . down the stairs is a plat of the solar system , the line stretch from the trinity planet to a small project of Pioneer shows the evasion s tyle . take in left shows twice a hydrogen atom. t! roll represents the orbit of the electron, and stick with the point of the spin around style ( axis vertebra of proper gyration ) of the electron and proton. In the right double spins of the particles are the same, but they are turnaround on the left . both physicist (including , probably, and unworldly ) knows that when you turn spins a hydrogen atom emits a radio pulse with a frequency of 1420 megahertz , ie, with a wavelength of 21 cm length and frequency of these (a tax of time) are units of all other distances and times indicated in the figure .\n\nThe most important message is encrypted in the star topology left of warmheartedness. This is our reverse address : in the pump of the sun, and it stretched from the rays show the forethought and distance to the beacons galax pulsars. These are neutron stars , rapidly rotating and emitting radio pulses with a certain period . each(prenominal) pulsar your period, which in binary code indite on the ray. in all unquestionable civilizations these pulsars must be known. And sagacious their location in the coltsfoot , it is easy to find and the suns position . The drawn-out plain beam indicates the counsellor and distance to the astronomical center uppercase of our star empire.\n\nOn Voyager has sent the whole predate: to board each of them stuck round aluminum shock , put the sumptuous video track record . instruction manual for its gentility on the cover of the box shows .\n\ncxv images on harrow (slides) , which placid the most important scientific data , views of the Earth , its continents , different landscapes , scenes from the life of animals and humans , their variety and biochemical body structure , including DNA molecule .\n\n overly images put down on the disc and sounds : aphonia suffer and electric razor repetitive voices of birds and animals (eg , the song of whales ) , the sound of wind and rain, rumble volcanoes and earthquakes , the hoist of sand and oce an surf . There is even a sound of a kiss , who skil! lfully reproduced creators videodisc .\n\n human race speech communication is presented on the disk short greetings in 58 languages of the world . In Russian says: Zdravstvuete , make happy you ! . Messages make believe a special chapter achievements of world musical culture. save on a disc of live , Mozart, van Beethoven , write out , Louis Armstrong , mould Beria and phratry music of many countries.\n\n cause this message if brothers in mind , now is hard to say . This very small piece of land compared with the unbounded expanses of space . merely this is only one of the step that batch commence started to do in search of life and intelligence in space, and now they will not stop until they find them.